CHRONOLOGY OF INTERNATIONAL DOCUMENTS ON CULTURAL DIVERSITY
Organized and updated by Giselle Dupin (MINC)
1945 – Foundation of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization – UNESCO
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization was founded on November 16, 1945 and entered into force on November 4, 1946. UNESCO functions as an agency that promotes international cooperation among its 193 Member States and six Associate Members in the fields of education, science, culture and communication, and works with the aim of creating conditions for a genuine dialogue based on respect for shared values between civilizations, cultures and people.
1948 – Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Recognition of the inherent dignity of all members of the human race and of the equal and inalienable rights is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world, designed by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
The protection of human rights by the rule of law, that they are not compelled to rebellion against tyranny and oppression, was proclaimed by the General Assembly as a common ideal to reach all people and nations . The purpose is that every individual and every body of society shall strive by teaching and education to promote respect for these rights and freedoms and to promote, by progressive measures, national and international order.
1948 – Agreement for Facilitating the International Circulation of Visual and Auditory Materials of Character Education, Scientific and Cultural
The agreement aims to facilitate the international circulation of visual and auditory materials of an educational, scientific and cultural character. This free exchange wants to promote mutual understanding between diverse people.
1950 – Agreement on the Importation of Educational, Scientific and Cultural Materials – The Florence Agreement
Prepared by UNESCO, The Florence Agreement is intended to promote the free circulation of books, publications and objects with educational, scientific or cultural character, with the intention of non-application of customs and duties on imports of these products, to improve the circulation of knowledge .
1952 – Convention About Universal Copyright – Copyright
Adopted in Geneva in 1952, it is one of the main conventions, as well as the Berne Convention, which protects intellectual work, scientific and literary property, films and sculptures, along with the familiar brand. Revised on July 24, 1971, in Paris.
1954 – Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict
Established among its contractors, it states that they respect cultural property situated within their territories. The convention does not allow the use of the property, its protection devices and immediate accesses for purposes that could lead to the possible destruction or damage in the event of armed conflict.
It is also the responsibility of participating countries to prohibit and prevent any act of theft, pillage or misappropriation of cultural property and vandalism.
1954 – Protocol to the Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict
The protocol establishes the duties of the countries that adopted the Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict .
1954 – Convention for the Promotion of Inter-American Cultural Relations
Signed in Caracas on March 28, 1954, the Convention aims for a greater knowledge and understanding of people and institutions of the members of the Organization of American States. The convention seeks the largest exchange of professors, teachers and students in the American countries, and encourages closer relations between the unofficial organizations that contribute to the formation of public opinion.
1960 – Recommendation Concerning the Construction of Museums
This recommendation is to the applicability of measures for administration of museums by participants considering the functions of the organization and their constitution. With the intention of making the museum a form of education and dissemination of culture through cultural , scientific , historical and technological exhibitions open to the public.
1966 – Declaration of Principles and International Cooperation
Organized by UNESCO, the delcaration proclaims the wide diffusion of culture and of all people with the goal of justice, freedom and peace education considering essential to human dignity and duty of all nations to provide mutual aid in search of achieving free exchange of ideas and knowledge. This declaration also seeks to develop and strengthen relations between the populations of signatory countries.
1968 – Recommendation Concerning the Preservation of Public or Private Cultural Property
Recommendation for planning programs for education and development of measures to conserve cultural property in each participating state.
1970 – Convention on the Means that Should be Adopted for Prohibiting and Preventing the Import, Export and Unlawful Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property
The participating countries of the Convention recognize that the import, export and transfer of cultural goods are the main causes of the impoverishment of the cultural heritage of the countries of origin of such goods. International collaboration is one of the most effective ways to protect them.
1971 – Universal Copyright Convention
The Convention means that the contracting countries shall undertake to take all necessary measures to ensure a practical and effective protection of the rights of authors and other copyright proprietors of these rights in literary, scientific and artistic works such as writings, musical work, drama and film and painting, printmaking and sculpture.
1972 – Convention for the Protection of Cultural and Natural Heritage of the World
The Convention was adopted in 1972 by the General Conference of UNESCO to protect cultural and natural heritage of both degradation caused by nature itself, as well as the damage caused by social and economic development.
1973 – Declaration of the Intergovernmental Conference on Cultural Policies in Asia
The declaration protects what the advancement of science and economics bring together with the modern model of life issues that affect the traditional and spiritual harmony of man .
1975 – Declaration of the Intergovernmental Conference on Cultural Policies in Africa
The statement is represented by African countries, members of UNESCO, reminiscent of colonial times and affirms the creation of a political, economic, cultural and social identity.
1976 – Recommendation for the Participation and Contribution of People in Cultural Life
This recommendation was the result of the concern about the cultural background of individual and the prerogative of creating access to support mechanisms for cultural production. Thus we seek to create economic conditions for free access to information, training, cultural knowledge and cultural heritage of each country. Understanding that it is essential to opening opportunities for cultural groups to express themselves promoting the development of an identity, the exchange of information, new knowledge and a culture of peace.
1978 – Recommendation for the Protection of Movable Cultural Goods
Due to the growing interest in acquiring cultural products, the creation of museums, cultural institutions, art exhibitions, private collections of art and the creation of monuments, thus was created the International Recommendation of Movable Cultural Rights Trade, adopted by the General Conference of UNESCO in its nineteenth session in 1976.
1980 – Recommendation for International Standardization of Investment Culture
This is a recommendation for the funding of cultural activities (other than education). These activities are defined as: cultural heritage historical monuments and sites, archives, museums, archaeological digs, cultural heritage protection, conservation activities and cultural heritage registry, research and training. In addition to these categories, as part of the recommendation, the financing of activities such as: music, radio, television, literature, theater, visual arts, film and photography, sociocultural activities, sports and natural sciences.
1980 – Recommendation for the Safeguarding and Preservation of Motion Pictures
The UNESCO General Conference met in Belgrade in 1980 and considered the cinematic images as expressions of culture and identity of people. The influence they exert on education, culture, science and history is considered an integral part of the cultural heritage of nations.
1989 – Convention of Indigenous and Tribal Peoples
The General Conference of the International Labor Organization – ILO convened in Geneva on June 7, 1989, recognized the aspirations of indigenous and tribal peoples to take control of their own institutions, ways of life, economic development and strengthening of their identities, languages and religions within the limits of the States in which they live.
1989 – Recommendation for the Safeguarding of Cultural Traditions and Folklore
This recommendation considers that folklore is a form of universal heritage of humanity that different people groups and social classes are culturally, economically and politically important and present in contemporary culture identity.
1994 – Cultural Exception
This discussion arose in the context of the Uruguay Round on General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT).
1995 – Our Creative Diversity Report
“Our Creative Diversity” is the title of the work of Javier Pérez de Cuéllar that brings new perspectives on the relationship between culture and development, provides valuable insights to enlarge the notion of development and help the people of the world to find their own paths without losing the sense of identity and community.
1996 – Cultural Mercosur
Created in September 2004, it is a Brazilian experience in the formulation and management of public policies in the areas of cultural heritage and museology will be shared with Paraguay, through two cooperation projects signed between Brazil and the neighboring country.
1996 – Universal Declaration of Linguistic Rights
This statement assumes that language is the result of the interaction of social, political, territorial, historical and ideological factors in a region. It is considered as an expression of a collective identity and distinct to learning and describing reality.
1999 – International Code for the Marketing of Cultural Property
The concern of this code is on trafficking of stolen cultural goods and stolen and illicitly exported goods.
Its main role is to provide information to distinguish goods resulting from illegal trade and procedures for the legal sale of these assets, based on the assumption that the market for cultural goods has an essential role in the performance of the dissemination of culture, trade and distribution to museums and international gallery collections, and a great source of education and inspiration for people.
2000 – UNESCO Agreement – Community of Portuguese Speaking Countries – CPLP
This agreement was made between CPLP and UNESCO in order to cooperate on issues related to education, exact, natural and social sciences, environmental protection, culture, communication, and other industries in which the two organizations have similar tasks and activities. Formed within one of the pillars of creation of UNESCO which is gradually achieving the cooperation of nations in the fields of education, science, culture and communication, the targets of international peace and common prosperity of mankind.
2001 – Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity
The declaration is the opening act of the new ethics of UNESCO for the XXI Century, which laid out a tool able to cover issues related to cultural diversity and intercultural dialogue.
2001 – Convention on the Protection of Underwater Cultural Heritage
This is the first convention to protect underwater heritage, which is understood as all traces of human existence that now lie underwater and represent a cultural and/or historical character. Examples of Underwater Heritage are the Lighthouse of Alexandria in Egypt and the shipwrecks that are older than a century.
2002 – Declaration of Salamanca
Final declaration of the meeting of cultural territories representatives of the European continent to discuss the collective and individual problems of culture’s place within the European Union.
2003 – Declaration of Intent on Destruction of Cultural Heritage
This statement expresses concern about the increasing number of attempts to destroy the cultural heritage. UNESCO seeks to ensure the conservation and protection of books, works of art and historical monuments, encouraging the organization of international congresses, seminars and other activities promoting the safeguarding of cultural heritage.
2003 – Convention for the Safeguarding of Intangible Cultural Heritage
After the adoption of the Convention for the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage in 1972, some member States expressed interest in the creation of an instrument to protect intangible heritage. In 2003, this interest resulted in the development of the Convention for the Safeguarding of Intangible Cultural Heritage, which came into force on April 20th, 2006. This Convention created an Intergovernmental Committee responsible for promoting the its objectives through the dissemination of exemplary practices and recommendations on measures for safeguarding intangible heritage.
2003 – Creation of the Department of Identity and Cultural Diversity of MinC
The Cultural Diversity is finally implemented in Brazil and gains attention in the first term of Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva government with the creation of the Department of Identity and Cultural Diversity in the Ministry of Culture. Since its inception, the department develops the Identity and Cultural Diversity Program – Plural Brazil, which aims to ensure that groups and networks of cultural producers responsible for manifestations characteristic of diversity have access to support mechanisms, promotion and cultural exchange between regions and Brazilian cultural groups, considering gender identity characteristics, sexual orientation, age, ethnic groups and popular culture.
2005 – Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions
The Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions was adopted by the General Conference of UNESCO in 2005 and ratified by Brazil in 2007. This new Convention is one of the three pillars of promotion of creative diversity, along with the 1972 Convention on the World Cultural and Natural Heritage and the 2003 convention for the safeguarding of intangible cultural heritage. Together, these three instruments reinforce the idea expressed in the UNESCO Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity (2001), that the latter should be considered “the common heritage of humanity” and makes its defence an “ethical imperative indissociable from respect for the dignity of the individual”.
2006 – Brazilian Senate approves the UNESCO Convention on the Diversity of Cultural Expressions UNESCO
Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions was approved by the Brazilian Senate on December 19th, 2006. The proposal had been approved less than a month before that in Congress. The Convention was enacted in Brazil by Decree No. 6,177, August 1st, 2007.
2006 – Iberoamerican Cultural Charter
Even without mentioning the Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions the Iberoamerican Cultural Charter includes several of its content and challenges.
2007 – UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples
This statement, which had been negotiated since 1985, was proved by the United Nations (UN) General Assembly on September 13th, 2007 with 143 votes in favor, including Brazil’s. The document is an important tool for protecting the rights of indigenous peoples worldwide. It states rights such as: the right to political participation; access to land, territories and natural resources; no relocation without the free, prior and informed consent; the unwritten rules that govern the internal life of indigenous communities and the intellectual property right.
2007 and 2009 – 1st and 2nd Conferences of the Parties of the Convention on the Protection and Promotion of Cultural Diversity
The Conference of Parties is a plenary and supreme body of the Convention on Cultural Diversity. This conference takes place every two years in order to approve the operational guidelines prepared by the Intergovernmental Committee, adopt measures, elect members of the Intergovernmental Committee as well as to adopt any other measures deemed necessary to further the objectives of this Convention.
In the first Conference of the Parties of the Convention for the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions of UNESCO, in 2007, delegations from the 57 countries, parties of the Convention until then were present. In June 2009, the Conference of the Parties gathered representatives of 98 countries that had already ratified the Convention.
In May 2010, the Convention had 110 members, 109 countries and one organization of regional economic integration , the European Community.
2007/2010 – Intergovernmental Committee of the Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions
The Intergovernmental Committee of the Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions, in the framework of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) is composed of a total of 24 countries. Brazil was elected a member of that Committee, initially for a special term of two years (12 countries were selected to serve a shorter term to allow the renewal of half of the members every two years). Brazil was reelected for another four years when this first term expired in June 2009.
The Committee normally gathers once a year, but it has already held three special meetings. It has worked mainly in the development of operational guidelines for articles of the Convention as well as searching alternative ways to raise funds to feed the International Fund for Cultural Diversity.
2010 – Opening of the first receiving of program process and projects to be funded by the International Fund for Cultural Diversity
These demands were evaluated by a committee of experts appointed by the Intergovernmental Committee (December 2009). In December 2010, the Committee evaluated the projects recommended by the experts and approved funding for 31 projects, among which 19 from African countries and 8 from Latin American countries. The total funds invested in these projects will be over a million and a half dollars.
2012 – 1st report on implementation of the Convention elaborated by countries
The countries that had ratified the UNESCO Convention by the end of 2008 are making their quadrennial reports on how they are implementing it. What is new on this report is the formal requirement of UNESCO that civil society also participates. In Brazil, the report is being drafted by the Ministry of Culture team, with contributions from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, National Council for Cultural Policy, National Commission for the Promotion of Culture, IPEA, Brazilian Coalition for Cultural Diversity and the Observatory for Cultural Diversity.
2012 – Creation of the Committee on Cultural Diversity in Cultural MERCOSUR
During the XLIII Meeting of the Common Market Council (CMC), held in June 2012 in Argentina, the structure of MERCOSUR Cultural was approved, including among other areas, the Commission for Cultural Diversity (CDC for its acronym in Portuguese), according to Brazilian proposal. According to the decision, the CDC should meet every six months. The first meeting of the Committee was held in Brazil in November of the same year.
2012 – Declaration of Brasilia – Brazil and Argentina Agreement
This statement, which was signed in August 2012 by the Culture Ministers of the two countries, aims to deepen dialogue and bilateral cooperation and to continue the implementation of joint actions that were stipulated in the Declaration of Buenos Aires (November 15, 2001) under the cultural integration between Brazil and Argentina, from the November 10, 1997 agreement. In Brasilia, the two countries agreed to advance the implementation of bilateral thematic forums in the areas of cultural policies, creative economy and cultural heritage. They also volunteered to exchange experiences related to developing policies that integrate culture and education, as well as deepening the exchange of audiovisual cultural content.
2013 – UN Report on Cultural Rights
The report on freedom of artistic expression was performed by request of the Human Rights Council, which is an official body of the UN. It was prepared by the special rapporteur of the United Nations in the field of cultural rights, Farida Shaheed. The report, published in March 2013, shows that “cultural rights refer to a set of issues, such as the expression and creation, especially in the context of various material and non-material forms of artistic expression; information and communication; language, identity and belonging to multiple various and mutant community; building a personal view of the world and the having freedom to adopt a particular mode of life; education and training; the access, contribution and participation in cultural life; the pursuit of cultural practices and access to cultural heritage be it material and immaterial.
Available in English: http://artsfreedom.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/A-HRC-23-34_en.pdf
2013 – Declaration of Suriname
On March, 14th and 15th 2013, the city of Paramaribo, Suriname hosted the XIX Forum of Ministers of Culture and Supervisors of Cultural Policies of Latin America and the Caribbean, along with the 1st Meeting of Ministers of Culture of the States of Latin American Community and the Caribbean (CELAC for its acronym in Portuguese) who signed the Declaration of Suriname. Remarking the symbolic importance of this first meeting of CELAC, the Declaration states the decision of the group to “advance the cultural integration of the region, preserve cultural heritage and promote culture in favor of economic growth, poverty eradication and sustainable development”, and ratifies “the respect for the cultural diversity of the Latin American and Caribbean identities for they are multiethnic, multicultural and multilingual societies”. The document also confirms the importance of cultural rights in the context of human rights and supports the adoption of “necessary measures to restore and safeguard knowledge and traditional knowledge of indigenous peoples, Afro-descendant communities and communities from other geographical origins the today are part of the Latin American and Caribbean identity.”
2013 – UNESCO report – Investing in Cultural Diversity and Intercultural Dialogue
This second worldwide report aims to take stock of all that is said, thought and done in the name of cultural diversity, as well as identify the necessary conditions for making diversity an asset and not a threat, a source of renewal for public policies that serve to the development, social cohesion and peace. From analyses of the new initiatives, examples, case studies and best practices, this report advances certain tracks to be explored to renew development strategies towards poverty eradication and environmental action and in favor of a governance based on human.
Available in Spanish: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0018/001847/184755S.pdf
2013 – Declaration of Hangzhou
The International Congress of UNESCO “Culture: Key to Sustainable Development” held in Hangzhou, China, in May 2013, approved a final declaration which invites governments, civil society and the private sector to explore the power of culture facing challenges on development, such as environmental sustainability, poverty and social inclusion. Whereas culture is not yet fully integrated into strategies for sustainable development worldwide, the declaration brings together examples of initiatives aimed at enhancing the vital role of culture for sustainable development. It demands that public policies take into account and intensify the variety of initiativesmade at local and national levels. Remembering the transversal role of culture in a variety of areas, the declaration calls on the actors of the cultural sector and other sectors – such as education, health and urban planning – to integrate culture in strategies for social growth and development.
2013 – Montevideo Consensus on Population and Development
The Consensus of Montevideo, which was the result of the 1st Regional Conference on Population and Development in Latin America and the Caribbean, held in August 2013, that aimed at analyzing the progress of the regional agenda for population and development in the last 20 years will serve as the basis for the 47th session of the Commission on Population and the Development of UN Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) – New York, April 2014. The document addresses several questions related to the agenda of cultural policies, such as the fight against racism, racial discrimination and xenophobia, especially in relation to Afro-descendants and indigenous peoples; youth human rights; gender equality; aging and elderly; migration; interculturalism and indigenous peoples’ rights and others.
Organized by Giselle Dupin – Advisor to the Department of Citizenship and Cultural Diversity of the Ministry of Culture and UNESCO contact in Brazil for the 2005 Convention